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Spring is the perfect time to be in the Pinewood - Preserving The Caledonian Forest

Whilst Autumn is well known to be the best time to be out in Scotland's woodlands, but in my view the perfect time to take a walk in Scotland's remaining Pine forests must be in Spring. In May, male and female flowers appear, both on the same tree and on the larger and older trees they offer a stunning visual contrast with the bright green set against the tree's dark bark trunk and branches.


The Scots Pine is one of only three conifer trees native to Scotland (The other two being the Yew and Juniper) and once covered a vast expanse of Scotland. They were the mainstay of the Caledonian forests that have been present in Scotland since the end of the last Ice Age, around 10,000 years ago. The Caledonian pine forests are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and are characterized by their rugged landscape, deep gorges, and fast-flowing rivers.

An old Scots Pine in Glenn Strathfarrar
An old Scots Pine in Glenn Strathfarrar

The exact extent of the Caledonian pine forests in Scotland is difficult to determine, as the forests have been impacted by human activity and climate change over thousands of years. However, it's estimated that at their maximum extent, the Caledonian pine forests covered around 1.5 million hectares (3.7 million acres) of Scotland. The Caledonian pine forest was primarily made up of one species of pine, which is the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). However, the term "Caledonian pine forest" is sometimes used to refer to a broader range of forest types that existed in Scotland in the past, which may have included other species of trees in addition to Scots pine. For example, during the Holocene period, which ended around 4,200 years ago, the Caledonian pine forest is thought to have been a mix of Scots pine, birch, hazel, rowan, aspen, and willow. Over time, the forest composition may have changed in response to environmental factors, such as climate change and human activity.



Today, the remaining Caledonian pine forests are fragmented and cover less than 1% of their original extent. The largest remaining areas of Caledonian pine forest are scattered throughout the Highlands to a greater and lesser extent.

The decline in the Caledonian pine forests can be attributed to several factors, including:

  • Human activity: The Caledonian pine forests have been impacted by human activity for centuries. During the Middle Ages, the forests were heavily exploited for timber, fuel, and grazing land. More recently, industrialization and modern agriculture have also had a significant impact on the forests.

  • Climate change: The Caledonian pine forests are adapted to a cold, wet climate and are sensitive to changes in temperature and precipitation. Climate change is causing changes in the timing and duration of the growing season, which can have negative impacts on the trees and other vegetation.

  • Overgrazing: Grazing by domestic and wild animals, such as deer, sheep, and goats, can have a significant impact on the Caledonian pine forests. Overgrazing can damage the trees and prevent new growth from establishing.

  • Disease: Like all living organisms, the Caledonian pine forests are susceptible to disease. One disease that has had a significant impact on the forests is Dothistroma needle blight, which causes needle loss and can weaken the trees.

  • Fire: Wildfires can have a devastating impact on the Caledonian pine forests. While fires are a natural part of some ecosystems, they can be particularly destructive in the Caledonian pine forests due to the slow-growing nature of the trees.


These forests are important habitats for a range of fauna and flora, including the pine martin, the capercaillie, and red squirrel. It is now recognized that despite efforts to improve the management of the remaining Pinewoods they are still in decline. Conservation efforts are underway to protect and restore the remaining Caledonian pine forests. These efforts include the creation of new forests through planting and natural regeneration, as well as the management of existing forests to improve their health and biodiversity. The goal is to protect and expand the remaining forests, so that they can continue to provide important ecosystem services and be enjoyed by future generations.


One of the key Trusts involved in the regeneration project is The Trees for Life which will open its new Dundreggan Rewilding Centre in Glenmoriston on 15th April. They will play an important role in the coming years in ensuring the pinewoods decline is reversed.



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